Mediators of Inflammation
 Journal metrics
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Acceptance rate23%
Submission to final decision95 days
Acceptance to publication25 days
CiteScore7.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.610
Impact Factor4.711

Article of the Year 2021

COVID-19 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4): SARS-CoV-2 May Bind and Activate TLR4 to Increase ACE2 Expression, Facilitating Entry and Causing Hyperinflammation

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 Journal profile

Mediators of Inflammation publishes papers on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Agrawal, is an Assistant Clinical Professor of the Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology. Dr. Agrawal's research focuses on the dendritic cells of the immune system in the context of aging and autoimmunity.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

Latest Articles

More articles
Review Article

The Role of MicroRNAs in Hyperlipidemia: From Pathogenesis to Therapeutical Application

Hyperlipidemia is a common metabolic disorder with high morbidity and mortality, which brings heavy burden on social. Understanding its pathogenesis and finding its potential therapeutic targets are the focus of current research in this field. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have proved that miRNAs play vital roles in regulating lipid metabolism and were considered as promising therapeutic targets for hyperlipidemia and related diseases. It is demonstrated that miR-191, miR-222, miR-224, miR-27a, miR-378a-3p, miR-140-5p, miR-483, and miR-520d-5p were closely associated with the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia. In this review, we provide brief overviews about advances in miRNAs in hyperlipidemia and its potential clinical application value.

Review Article

Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pioglitazone on Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still a major cause of concern for public health, and out of all the trauma-related injuries, it makes the highest contribution to death and disability worldwide. Patients of TBI continue to suffer from brain injury through an intricate flow of primary and secondary injury events. However, when treatment is provided in a timely manner, there is a significant window of opportunity to avoid a few of the serious effects. Pioglitazone (PG), which has a neuroprotective impact and can decrease inflammation after TBI, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). The objective of the study is to examine the existing literature to assess the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory impact of PG in TBI. It also discusses the part played by microglia and cytokines in TBI. According to the findings of this study, PG has the ability to enhance neurobehavior, decrease brain edema and neuronal injury following TBI. To achieve the protective impact of PG the following was required: (1) stimulating PPARγ; (2) decreasing oxidative stress; (3) decreasing nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) expression; (4) limiting the increase in the number of activated microglia; and (5) reducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The findings indicate that when PIG is used clinically, it may serve as a neuroprotective anti-inflammatory approach in TBI.

Research Article

Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction Promoted Microglia M2 Polarization via the IL-13-Mediated JAK2/STAT6 Pathway to Alleviate Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Microglia in the penumbra shifted from M2 to M1 phenotype between 3 and 5 days after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, which promoted local inflammation and injury. Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction (SGD) has been found to result in a significant upregulation of IL-13 in the penumbra, which has been shown to induce polarization of M2 microglia. There was thus a hypothesis that SGD could exert an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect by activating IL-13 to induce microglia polarization towards M2 phenotype, and the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of SGD on microglia phenotype switching and its possible mechanism. Rats who received middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery (MCAO) were treated with SGD for 3 or 6 days, to investigate the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of SGD for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CI/RP). The results indicated that SGD improved neurobehavioral scores and reduced apoptosis. Furthermore, SGD significantly decreased M1 microglia and M1-like markers, but increased M2 microglia and M2 markers. Moreover, higher levels of IL-13 and ratios of p-JAK2/JAK2 and p-STAT6/STAT6 were found in the SGD group compared to the MCAO. In conclusion, it was verified that SGD prevented injury by driving microglia phenotypic switching from M1 to M2, probably via IL-13 and its downstream JAK2-STAT6 pathway. Given that no further validation tests were included in this study, it is necessary to conduct more experiments to confirm the reliability of the above results.

Review Article

The Role of Small Extracellular Vesicles and MicroRNAs in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis and Nasal Polyps

Allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps are common otorhinolaryngological diseases. Small extracellular vesicles and microRNAs have recently become major research topics of interest due to their key regulatory roles in cancer, inflammation, and various diseases. Although very detailed and in-depth studies on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps have been conducted, few studies have assessed the regulatory effects of exosomes and microRNAs on allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps. This paper reviews the studies on small extracellular vesicles and microRNAs in allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps conducted in recent years and focuses on the regulation of small extracellular vesicles and microRNAs in allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps with the aim of providing insights for the future diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps.

Research Article

Vericiguat Modulates Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption via a Balance between VASP and NF-κB Pathways

Bone homeostasis has been a dynamic equilibrium between osteoclasts (OCs) and osteoblasts (OBs). However, excessive activation of OCs could disturb the bone homeostasis. As a result, effective medical interventions for patients are greatly demanding. NO/guanylate cyclase (GC)/cGMP signaling cascade has been previously reported to regulate bone metabolism, and GC plays a significantly critical role. Vericiguat, as a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator, has been firstly reported in 2020 to treat patients with heart failure. Nevertheless, the biological effects of Vericiguat on the function of OCs have not yet been explored. In this present study, we found that Vericiguat with the concentration between 0 and 8 μM was noncytotoxic to bone marrow-derived monocyte-macrophage lineage (BMMs). Vericiguat could enhance the differentiation of OCs at concentration of 500 nM, whereas it inhibited OC differentiation at 8 μM. In addition, Vericiguat also showed dual effects on OC fusion and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a molecular assay suggested that the dual regulatory effects of Vericiguat on OCs were mediated by the bidirectional activation of the IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our present study demonstrated the dual effects of Vericiguat on the formation of functional OCs. The regulatory effects of Vericiguat on OCs were achieved by the bidirectional modulation of the IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway, and a potential balance between the IκB-α/NF-κB signaling pathway and sGC/cGMP/VASP may exist.

Research Article

The Combinatory Effect of Spirulina Supplementation and Resistance Exercise on Plasma Contents of Adipolin, Apelin, Ghrelin, and Glucose in Overweight and Obese Men

Introduction and Objective. Researchers are considering combining exercise and supplementation as a new strategy for weight loss and obesity prevention. This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of eight weeks of circuit resistance training and spirulina supplementation on plasma levels of adipolin, apelin, ghrelin, and glucose in overweight and obese men. Methods. The current investigation was conducted in a single-blind and quasiexperimental fashion. Sixty overweight and obese men () ranging in age from 30 to 55 years were purposefully selected and randomly assigned to one of four groups: training plus spirulina (T+S), training plus placebo (T+P), spirulina (S), or placebo (P). For eight weeks, the (S) and (P) groups consumed two 500 mg spirulina and placebo capsules daily, respectively. Resistance training was performed three sessions a week over eight weeks, consisting of 12 movements with 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-minute rest intervals and 40-90 percent maximal repetition. Adipolin, apelin, and ghrelin indices were measured before and after exercise using special kits. Results. All variables changed significantly between groups except for apelin. Within-group comparisons revealed a substantial increase in adipolin levels in the (T+S) and (T+P) groups (). Apelin levels were decreased in the (T+S) and (T+P) groups. Additionally, FBS levels reduced significantly in (T+S) (). Conclusion. It seems that eight weeks of circuit resistance training and spirulina supplementation can lead to reduced weight and apelin and FBS levels as well as increased concentrations of adipolin and ghrelin contents in overweight and obese men.

Mediators of Inflammation
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate23%
Submission to final decision95 days
Acceptance to publication25 days
CiteScore7.000
Journal Citation Indicator0.610
Impact Factor4.711
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.